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Polyploid unisexual, bisexual-unisexual complexes and gynogenetic forms of Cobitis exist in the basins of the Baltic, Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas (Vasil'ev and Vasil'eva, 1996; Kottelat, 1997; Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 1998; Vasil'ev et al., 1999; Bohlen, 2001; Vasil'ev et al., 2011).

The species are morpohologically undifferentiated and therefore require detailed study to resolve taxonomic and systematic problems.

They take in air at the surface, and pass it through the intestine where the mucosa absorbs the oxygen and carbon dioxide waste is released through the vent.

The origins of this group of loaches may well lie at the end of the Eocene or in the early Oligocene in South China, spreading along a northern route through Europe and Siberia during the Oligocene-Miocene-Pliocene period and then later southwards into Southwest Asia (Sawada, 1982; Menon, 1987; 1992; Bănărescu and Nalbant, 1998; Šlechtov et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2008).

Foods are mostly small insects, worms and crustaceans detected by the aid of the barbels on the habitat bottom. Most species bury themselves in sand or mud during the day, emerging to feed at night.

Movement is by undulations of the body, particularly marked in the more elongate species.

This name is not repeated under each Species Account. This genus is characterised by an elongate and compressed body, a usually bifid, erectile spine below the eye (sometimes hidden under the skin), 3 pairs of short barbels (4 at the snout tip and 2 at the mouth corners), minute scales cover the body (as many as 200 but they are seldom counted accurately), lateral line faint or indistinct, dorsal and anal fins small, caudal fin rounded or truncate, and swimbladder in a bony capsule with a free portion visible.

Males have bony extensions of their pectoral fin rays, known as lamina circularis or scale of Canestrini, and no swellings of their body sides.

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